Four parallel 100mL HEL automate reactors (glass jacketed). Temperature control of reactors is achieved by employing the Windows computer programme – which also monitors reactor temperature and turbidity. Turbidity probes are employed within each reactor to take measurements of solution turbidity throughout the operation. The principle apparatus / instruments included: HEL 100mL automate reactors – mini reactors linked to one control system in which a single cooling rate is applicable to all reactors through any run. Each reactor consists of a 100mL glass vessel which fits into a glass-lined thermal jacket. The base of the glass vessel rests on a metallic heating plate. Temperature control is therefore achieved through a combination of the thermal fluid fed into the reactor jacket by the Julabo heat exchanger and the internal plate heater. A single heat duty is applicable from the thermal fluids to all four reactors, yet the internal heaters are activated to compensate for any deviation from the thermal fluid temperature required in any of the reactors. Each reactor is fitted with a retreat curve impeller, capable of impeller speeds of 0 - 1200 rpm. Impeller speeds are controlled through manual dials. HEL turbidity probe – the probe emits a laser beam which samples the solution and then reflects upon a small mirror. The detector measures the intensity of light returned via reflection compared to that of the light beam leaving the probe. Presence of particles causes attenuation of the light beam allowing the detector to sense drop in turbidity. The measurements of reflection intensity are with reference to a calibration and the probe is calibrated at 0 when detector is covered by a dark material and is calibrated at 100 in pure distilled water.
|Prof Prof Kevin Roberts|